”Jewish Veterinarians may not open practices”; “General employment ban”
Twenty years ago this month, Berlin-based artists Renata Stih and Frieder Schnock inaugurated their hugely controversial “Places of Remembrance” memorial. This unusual and forward thinking installation uses bold graphics and snappy statements to pictorially represent the anti-Jewish legislation enacted in Nazi Germany between 1933-1939. Placards showing the law and its date of enactment on one side and a pictorial representative of the restriction on the other have been carefully placed throughout the Bavarian Quarter, a former Jewish district in West Berlin. These signs serve as powerful symbols of a society moving methodically and progressively towards excluding Jews from daily life, stripping their civil and human rights, and isolating them from communicating with the outside world. Read more about this installation in The New York Review of Books article, ‘Jews Aren’t Allowed to Use Phones’: Berlin’s Most Unsettling Memorial.
We have much to learn from this memorial, which encourages us to remember the past, and to become vigilant about the incredibly dangerous systematic enactment of laws intended to limit civil liberties and full participation in society that occur throughout our world at this time. Be sure to watch for – and act upon – these signs.
Decree of the Berlin city commissioner for health suspends Jewish doctors from the city’s charity services.
Law for the Reestablishment of the Professional Civil Service removes Jews from government service.
Law on the Admission to the Legal Profession forbids the admission of Jews to the bar.
Law against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities limits the number of Jewish students in public schools.
De-Naturalization Law revokes the citizenship of naturalized Jews and “undesirables.”
Law on Editors bans Jews from editorial posts.
Army law expels Jewish officers from the army.
Nazi leaders announce the Nuremberg Laws.
Executive Order on the Reich Tax Law forbids Jews to serve as tax-consultants.
Reich Veterinarians Law expels Jews from the veterinary profession.
Reich Ministry of Education bans Jewish teachers from public schools.
The Mayor of Berlin orders public schools not to admit Jewish children until further notice.
Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names forbids Jews from changing their names.
Law on the Profession of Auctioneer excludes Jews from this occupation.
The Gun Law excludes Jewish gun merchants.
Decree against the Camouflage of Jewish Firms forbids changing the names of Jewish-owned businesses.
Order for the Disclosure of Jewish Assets requires Jews to report all property in excess of 5,000 reichsmarks.
Reich Ministry of the Interior bans Jews from health spas.
Executive Order on the Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names requires Jews to adopt an additional name: “Sara” for women and “Israel” for men.
Decree on the Confiscation of Jewish Property regulates the transfer of assets from Jews to non-Jewish Germans.
The Reich Interior Ministry invalidates all German passports held by Jews. Jews must surrender their old passports, which will become valid only after the letter “J” had been stamped on them.
Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life closes all Jewish-owned businesses.
Reich Ministry of Education expels all Jewish children from public schools.
Reich Ministry of Interior restricts the freedom of movement of Jews.
The Reich Interior Ministry forbids Jews to keep carrier pigeons.
An Executive Order on the Law on the Organization of National Work cancels all state contracts held with Jewish-owned firms.
Law on Midwives bans all Jews from the occupation.
Decree Concerning the Surrender of Precious Metals and Stones in Jewish Ownership.
The President of the German Lottery forbids the sale of lottery tickets to Jews.